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Welcome, medical contents search April 25, 2013
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Arterial blood gases

  • Arterial blood

  • pH: 7.35-7.45
  • pCO2: 35-45 mm Hg
  • HCO3: 21-28 mEq/L
  • pO2:
    1. Adult: 80-100 mm Hg
    2. Newborn: 60-70 mm Hg
  • SaO2:
    1. Adult: > 95%
    2. Newborn: 40-90%
  • Base excess: 2 mEq/L

  • The diagnosis of chronic and restrictive pulmonary disease, adult respiratory failure, acid-base disturbances, Pulmonary Emboli, sleep disorders, central nerve system dysfunctions, cardiovascular disorders
  • In management of patients on mechanical ventilators and during the weaning process from the ventilators

  • Hypoxia
  • Respiratory acidosis (low pH, high pCO2 )
    1. Respiratory center dysfunction; opiates, anesthetics, sedatives, oxygen-induced hypoventilation
    2. Disorders of the respiratory muscles or chest wall; Myasthenia Gravis, kyphoscoliosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    3. Disorders of gas exchange; chronic pulmonary disorders, asphyxia, acute Pulmonary Edema
  • Respiratory alkalosis
    1. Hyperventilation; Atelectasis, severe anemia, Anxiety, Pulmonary Emboli
    2. Central nerve system disorders; brain stem dysfunction, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Salicylate poisoning
    3. Hypermetabolic states; fever, Thyrotoxicosis, Sepsis
    4. Hyperventilation while on mechanical ventilation
  • Metabolic acidosis (low pH, low HCO3 )
    1. Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    2. Lactic acidosis
    3. Excessive ingestion of acid; salicylates, ethylene, methanol, paraldehyde
    4. Loss of bicarbonate (diarrhea, fistulas)
    5. Renal failure
  • Metabolic alkalosis (high pH, high HCO3 )

- Loss of body acid; vomiting, excess gastric suction, excessive diuretics, hypokalemia, excessive ingestion of licorce, nonparathyroid hypercalcemia, HCO3 overload

  • Air bubbles in syringe
  • Low hemoglobin level
  • Hemolysis of sample

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