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Urologic Cancer

more about Urologic Cancer


Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, TCC, or bladder cancer



Normal

Abnormal
.



  • In women, a pelvic exam may reveal a mass.
  • An Advanced exam may reveal the following:
    1. Swollen legs
    2. Enlarged Liver
    3. Enlarged lymph glands above the clavicles
  • Laboratory Findings
    1. Urinalysis may show blood and occasionally white blood cells
    2. Blood Urea nitrogen may be elevated
    3. Anemia may occur
    4. Urine cytology (urine checked for cancer cells)
  • Imaging:
    1. Intravenous urography (dye injected and X-Rays of bladder taken)
    2. Ultrasound
    3. CT Scan
    4. MRI
  • Testing:

- Cystourethroscopy -- a scope is passed from the urethra into the bladder to look for cancer.


  • Cigarette smoking
  • Industrial dye exposure-textile industry, hairdressers, printers, and painters
  • Industrial solvent exposure -- i.e., those who use solvents for metal, rubber, and leather
  • Race may play a role -- Caucasians seem to develop TCC more than African-Americans.
  • People over the age of 60 are at high risk.
  • Those with a history of TCC are at high risk.

  • The decision as to which treatment to use depends on the size, degree, and spread of the Bladder Cancer.
  • Intravesical chemotherapy is administered by using a catheter to inject the chemotherapy directly into the bladder.
  • Surgical options depending on extent of spread:
    1. Limited resection of the tumors in the early stages is often done through a cystoscope, which is passed through the urethra (without cutting the abdomen, as in cystectomy), and is referred to as a transurethral resection (TUR).
    2. Partial bladder removal or partial cystectomy
    3. Removal of the total bladder is known as a radical cystectomy of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and other surrounding areas.
    4. Radiation therapy may be administered from outside the body, or via a radioactive material placed in the tumor.
    5. Immunotherapy, which uses the body's own immune system (natural defense), may be used for early stage tumors.
    6. Chemotherapy (intravenous) -- for advanced disease

- Cisplatin



  • Special Information

- Be sure to ask your doctor, usually an oncologist (cancer specialist), to let you know of the latest research and ongoing clinical trials on new treatments, or call 1-800-4-CANCER.





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