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Upper Respiratory Infection

more about Upper Respiratory Infection

Nasopharyngitis, common cold, cold, coryza, URI

  • An upper respiratory infection (URI) is the most common pediatric disease.  Known more commonly as the Common Cold, URIs usually occur in September, late January, and the end of April.  Children usually have five to eight URIs annually.

  • Systemic symptoms are more severe in younger children.
  • Younger infants usually have no fever; older children may have a low-grade fever.
  • Infants:
    1. Fever
    2. Irritability, restlessness
    3. Sneezing, nasal discharge, nasal obstruction
    4. Nose breathing, breathing difficulties
    5. Diarrhea, vomiting
  • Older children:
    1. Dryness and irritation of the nose
    2. Sneezing
    3. Chills, muscle pain, nasal discharge
    4. Coughing, headache, lack of energy, poor appetites, low-grade fever
    5. Sore throat, mouth breathing

  • Viral:

- Rhinovirus, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, corona virus, adenovirus, enterovirus, influenza virus

  • Bacteria:

- Group A Streptococcus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Mycoplasma, Neisseria

  • URIs may be spread by sneezing, coughing or direct contact.

  • Based on the clinical symptoms

  • Respiratory allergy
  • Contact with infected person
  • Poor nutrition

  • Rest, appropriate nutrition, humidification
  • Acetaminophen or ibuprofen for fever and pain
  • Antihistamine to reduce nasal discharge, only for children who are older than 18 months of age
  • Nasal instillation of phenylephrine for nasal obstruction, instillation of sterile saline for infants
  • Antibiotics, if a bacterial infection is present.

  • Prevention is the key to controlling this disease.

more about Upper Respiratory Infection

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