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Inflammation of the Prostate Gland

more about Inflammation of the Prostate Gland

Prostatitis, prostrate infection, or Painful Prostate

  • The prostate gland in men, located between the rectum and the bladder (where urine is stored), may become inflamed (swelling, irritation, and pain).
  • This gland surrounds the neck of the bladder and the urethra (a tube that voids urine from the bladder via penis). Inflammation or Prostatitis tends to choke the urethra and obstruct the flow of semen and urine. Prostatitis can be acute (sudden) or chronic (over time).

  • Acute:
    1. Frequent urination
    2. A feeling of having to push the urine out
    3. Decreased urinary stream (amount of urine)
    4. Inability to completely empty the bladder
    5. Fever
    6. Chills
    7. Pain or burning during urination (dysuria)
    8. Frequent urination at night (nocturia)
    9. Painful ejaculation
    10. Lower back pain
    11. Pain in the lower abdomen
    12. Pain with bowel movement
    13. Blood in the Urine or semen
    14. Pain in the testicles
  • Chronic:
    1. Symptoms may be mild or absent.
    2. Symptoms similar to acute form.
    3. In non-bacterial form, fever and chills may be absent.

  • Infection:
    1. Bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and many others can cause inflammation of the prostate.
    2. Bacteria may cause both acute and the chronic forms.
  • Nonbacterial cause:
    1. A narrowing or stricture of the urethra can cause the urine to back up (reflux) and cause Prostatitis.
    2. Prostate Cancer or enlargement can block the neck of the bladder, causing urine to leak around and result in Prostatitis.
    3. Damage to the nerves that supply the prostate (i.e., Herniated Disk) and tension in muscles around the prostate can cause Prostatitis.
    4. Immune system -- body's natural defense system may play role in the inflammation of prostate.

  • History:
    1. Symptoms -- how long, how severe.
    2. Illnesses -- injuries, etc.
    3. Surgeries -- recent Cystoscopy
    4. Habits -- sexual habits
    5. Family
    6. Medications
    7. Allergies
  • Medical exam:
    1. May or may not have fever
    2. May reveal a warm, swollen, tender mass when the doctor inserts his gloved index finger into the rectum in order to reach and examine the prostrate (rectal exam).
    3. The groin area may have tender lumps known as inguinal lymph nodes.
  • Urine samples are collected (urine analysis -- U/A) and may show pus, white blood cells, and red blood cells.
  • Urine culture (clean catch sample) is collected and sent to the laboratory where in 24-48 hours the offending bacterium (and its sensitivity to antibiotic agents) is identified.
  • Blood samples may also be done for cultures.
  • Prostate massage is helpful in bringing out the discharge containing the bacteria (this is not done until antibiotics have been started).
  • In chronic bacterial and non-bacterial causes, the U/A may show white blood cells and cells containing fatty droplets (oval fat bodies), but bacteria may be absent. In both conditions, urine, urine in the bladder, and prostate secretions must be sent for bacterial cultures.
  • In non-bacterial form, the cultures are negative and no bacteria found.

  • Male sex
  • Sexually active
  • Age -- over 50 (for chronic form)
  • Urinary Tract Infections
  • Acute Prostatitis is a risk factor for chronic form.
  • Prostate stones
  • Epididymitis -- inflammation of the ducts that drain the testicles.
  • Urethritis -- inflammation of urethra
  • Manipulation or inserting devices in the urethra (Cystoscopy and catheter)
  • Infections in other body parts (e.g., rectum)
  • High Uric acid levels

  • Bed rest
  • Fluids
  • Cranberry juice may help
  • Painkillers --Tylenol or Advil
  • Stool softeners
  • Sitz baths will help with pain and spasms.
  • Antibiotics such as Septra help with acute form.
  • Ciprofloxacin daily for periods (over 3 months) are often given for the chronic form.
  • In Non-bacterial forms -- antibiotics are also tried
  • If antibiotics do not heal, surgical resection of the prostate or thermotherapy (heat) using microwaves may be an option for non-acute forms of Prostatitis.
  • Avoid spicy foods, alcohol, and caffeine.

  • Contact your physician, especially if there is pain, fever, chills, or bleeding.

  • Inflammation of seminal vesicles -- painful ejaculation
  • Cystitis -- bladder inflammation
  • Prostatodynia -- in young men, produces symptoms similar to Prostatitis
  • Urethritis

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