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Hypercalciuria

more about Hypercalciuria


  • Hypercalciuria is excessive loss of calcium into the urine.

  • The symptoms match the symptoms of the disease causing the calcium loss into the urine, for example: 
    1. Hypercalcemia
    2. Rickets
    3. Hyper-parathyroidism.
  • In hypercalcemia, fatigue, weakness, personality changes, vomiting, and Constipation may occur.  These are due to the high calcium in the blood, and not due to the high calcium in the urine.
  • In rickets, the growing child has demineralized bones (bones lack the normal amount of calcium, and the bones Fracture easily).
  • In hyperparathyroidism, there is excess urination; upper abdominal pain caused by an inflamed pancreas; pain in the bones and joints; Fractures of bones and joint surfaces.

  • Normally, the kidney detects the normal amount of calcium in the blood, and passes off into the urine the amount of calcium needed to maintain normal calcium blood levels.
  • Hypercalciuria (HCU) might be produced if there is a high amount of calcium in the blood.  HCU might also come about if a kidney abnormality sends too much calcium into the urine, even though the blood calcium is normal.
  • Normally, the daily amount of calcium in the urine is more or less the same.  In HCU, the daily amount of calcium in the urine is excessive.

  • Abnormally high calcium in a 24-hour urine collection (that is, the amount of urine passed and collected into a container in a 24-hour time period).

  • Prolonged immobilization (in a cast, for instance)
  • Prolonged bed rest
  • Certain types of rickets (the usual case of rickets means Vitamin D deficiency)
  • Hyperparathyroidism (overactive parathyroid gland, a gland in the neck)

  • In prolonged immobilization or prolonged bed rest, the bones lose some of the calcium into the urine, and become less solid.  One of the reasons that physicians get the patient up and moving is to prevent this loss of calcium.
  • In rickets, the child does not have enough new calcium coming into growing bones, and loses some calcium already in the bones, so the bones are soft.  The calcium that does not go into the bones (or leaves the bones) may be lost in the urine.  Vitamin D enables calcium that we eat to be absorbed into the bloodstream, and protects the calcium that is already in the bones.  Vitamin D (or substances with a chemical structure similar to the Vitamin D molecule) is the basic treatment for rickets.
  • In hyperparathyroidism, the concentration of calcium in the blood is too high, and calcium passes into the urine in larger-than-normal amounts.
  • If the hyperparathyroidism is caused by overactive parathyroid gland tissue in the neck, the excessive amount of gland tissue is removed by surgery.
  • If the hyperparathyroidism is caused by kidney failure, a special diet and hormone treatment are both used to lower the amount of calcium in the blood.

  • Loss of excess calcium into the urine can lead to soft, weak bones that Fracture easily.
  • The excess urine calcium can lead to stone formation in the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder) because the calcium often does not stay dissolved if present in large amounts.  The stones can cause bleeding in the urinary tract.  When blood appears in the urine, it is called hematuria.

  • Consult a physician to look for the underlying cause, if the child has any of the following symptoms:
    1. Fatigue, weakness, personality changes
    2. Recurrent vomiting and Constipation
    3. Upper abdominal pain
    4. Recurrent Fractures
    5. Pain/tenderness over bones and joints
    6. Excessive urination, hematuria

  • None




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