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Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

more about Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome


HUS



  • Hemolytic-uremic syndrome is a disease in which the number of platelets suddenly decreases, and the body's red blood cells are destroyed.  Kidney failure occurs simultaneously.  This is a rare syndrome that can occur after bacterial infection or develop from other diseases.  Some research suggests a genetic basis to the disease, but the exact cause is unknown.  It occurs most often in infants, small children, and pregnant women, but can occur in older children, adults, and women who aren't pregnant.

  • Irritability, restlessness
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Pallor
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Leg swelling
  • Decreased urine amount
  • Seizure

    1. E. coli 0157:H7
    2. Shigella
    3. Salmonella
    4. Viral
  • Familial (genetic)
  • Pregnancy (especially immediately after pregnancy)
  • Extremely severe (malignant) high blood pressure
  • After a kidney transplant

  • Manual blood count shows hemolytic anemia in visual inspection of the red blood cells
  • Decreased platelets
  • LDH level is high
  • Coombs test is negative
  • Elevated fibrin level
  • Elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level

  • Children usually recover, so treatment is supportive.  Dialysis at intervals may be required until healing is complete.
  • Adults undergo large volume plasmapheresis (plasma fraction of the blood is exchanged).
  • Maintain Calories
  • For kidney problems:
    1. Restrict fluid
    2. Diuretics
    3. Correction of electrolytes disturbance
    4. Dialysis
    5. Antihypertensive agents such as hydralazine, captopril, or nifedipine
  • For bleeding problems: Transfusion for symptomatic bleeding
  • Plasmapheresis (plasma fraction of the blood is exchanged)

  • Your child needs immediate emergency medical treatment.

  • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
  • Vasculitis such as Lupus
  • Sepsis
  • Acute liver failure
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Thrombocytopenic purpura




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