- Leukemia is a
life-threatening cancer of the white blood cells in the bone marrow. White blood cells normally function to fight infections. There are two major types of white blood cells -- neutrophils and lymphocytes -- allowing for two types of acute Leukemias: myelocytic (also known as AML, i.e., acute myelocytic Leukemia) and lymphocytic (also known as ALL, i.e., acute lymphocytic Leukemia).
- Both forms of acute Leukemia inhibit the
bone marrow's production of needed blood components,
including red blood cells and platelets (structures involved
in clotting blood).
- ALL is the most common cause of
cancer in children, generally occurring between ages 3 and
5, but it can also affect adolescents and, occasionally,
- AML affects people of all ages but
is more common in adults. It is a life-threatening cancer
that rapidly replaces the normal cells in the bone
- Bleeding in gums
- Bleeding under the skin, such as
bruises or spots
- Increased menstrual bleeding
- Thickened and swollen gums
- Bone pain
- Joint pain
- Weight loss
- Enlarged lymph nodes
- Shortness of breath
- Severe infections are
- Usually unknown
- Skin is pale
- Rash with red dots on the skin
- Enlarged liver
- Enlarged spleen
- Enlarged lymph nodes
- Bone tenderness
- Manual Complete blood count
shows diffuse decrease in all blood records with the
presence of blast cells (immature white blood cells).
- Acute lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) will
have granules in blast cells. A special cell marker called
TdT is present in 95 percent of cases. It is subtyped to
either B-cell or T-cell type.
Genetic testing on the cells is performed.
- Acute myelogenous Leukemia (AML) shows
Auer rods in the blast cells. Special stains may also be
- Genetic testing is performed and t
(8,21), t (15,17), and inv16q have a more favorable
- A bone marrow biopsy showing 30
percent or more blast forms, confirming the diagnosis
- Other lab findings may include
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), which is a
severe depletion of clotting factors in the blood.
- Uric acid level may
- Lumbar puncture (spinal tap) will show blasts if meningeal Leukemia is
- Intensive chemotherapy is
recommended. During this period, there is a high risk of
infection. Transfusion of blood products may be needed.
- Drug agents prescribed for AML
include daunorubicin (antibiotic) and cytarabine.
- Drug agents prescribed for ALL
include Daunorubicin, Vincristine, Prednisone, and
- After initial therapy, intense chemotherapy, high dose chemotherapy, and radiation with bone marrow transplant may be recommended to cure the disease.
You need immediate medical treatment. This is a curable disease. In AML, nearly 80 percent of adults younger than 60 years of age can be cured. 50 percent of patients older than 60 years may also be cured. In ALL, usually 80 percent of adults and 95 percent of children are cured.
- This is a severe elevation of the white blood
cell count to greater than 200,000/ml. Normal levels of
white blood cells are 10,0000/ml. The high level of white
bloods cells interferes with the circulation of red blood
cells, which carry oxygen. Confusion, headaches, and
shortness of breath are some of the symptoms. This is a
life-threatening emergency. Blood must be filtered in a
process called leukapheresis, and chemotherapy administered
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